Tahdhib-al-Afkar https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa <p><iframe src="https://tahdhibalafkar.com/" width="100%" height="950"> </iframe></p> en-US Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2411-6211 ناموس رسالت اورآزادئ اظہاررائے:عالمی قوانین اوراسلامی حدود کےتناظرمیں ایک جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/1 <p>Freedom of expression is considered as one of the basic rights of humanity. It means to express one's opinions without fear of being punished or penalized. In current era, this concept is either being misused or its implementation is biased. For example, now a days, discussion about Holocaust is banned while the expression of blasphemous ideas about Islam is dealt under the concept of freedom of speech. Almost all the religions and national or international charters of human rights, consider the expression of blasphemous ideas as crime or act being penalized. In this way a conflict is created whether the freedom of expression means to express ideas without any blasphemous limitations or not?&nbsp;&nbsp;In this article a discussion has been made about the limitations of freedom of expression in accordance with the acts of blasphemy law. Furthermore arguments have been authenticated in the light of Islamic Jurisprudence, legislation of different countries and UNO charter of human rights.&nbsp;</p> Atta ur Rahman Prof. Dr. Hamayun Abbas Shams Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-26 2020-04-26 01 24 نکاح النبیﷺکےوقت خدیجہ رضی اللہ عنہا کی عمر کا قضیہاہلِ سیَرکے آراء کی روشنی میں ایک جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/2 <p>Ḥaḍrat Muḥammad S.A.W is the last messenger of Allah, whom obedience has declared as obedience of Allah. Everything that belongs to Prophet S.A.W whether it is related to Wars (Ghazawᾱt) or Holy Wives (Azwᾱj-e-Muṭṭaharᾱt) Muslims get awareness of them and deem it a relighous duty. This trend has helped to save the lifestyle of the Prophet S.A.W and transform it to next generation. It is the miracle of the Prophet S.A.W that although the sources were limited, yet his complete life was mentioned in books and followed by beliers. After the Qurᾱn and Hadῑth Sῑrah is considered the most reliable source of religion, through which we get to about the practical life of Ḥaḍrat Muḥammad S.A.W. The Sῑrah of Ḥaḍrat Muḥammad S.A.W is authentic, complete and worthy to be followed. Sῑrah is a field where the Non-Muslim scholars have shown their interest. They have complied hundreds books on the life of the Prophet S.A.W. Though some have their critical opinions and negative interpretation about some events of Sῑrah. One issue that has been taken into consideration is the Age issue of Ḥaḍrat KHadῑja R.A at time she got married to the Prophet S.A.W. The Opinions regarding this issue are somehow controversial. In this article an attempt has been done to evaluate this issue and explore the most authentic opinions after researching the Sῑrah collections.</p> Mumtaz Khan Dr. Karim Dad Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-26 2020-04-26 25 36 عصرِ حاضر کے تارکین ِ اسلام اور اسلام سے متعلق ان کی تحریرات ایک علمی و تحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/3 <p>Clash of civilizations is a historical fact. According to the Juedo-Christo history, both Christians and Jews have face persecutions by one another, because both believed to be on the God side. When Islᾱm arised, both Christian and Jews stood against it and started battles and plots against Islᾱm and Muslims in different ways, but soon they realized that this is not the right way to conquer Muslims,so they started studying Islamic Studies and they went so deeply through various fields of Islamic studies which later on grew up to Orientalism. With the passage of time the Orientalists realized that if a non-Muslim being an Orientalist, criticizes Islᾱm and the Prophet of Islᾱm, the Muslim World will not consider such criticism valid, so the West came with an alternate strategy and that was the upbringing of such Muslims who had been learning about Islᾱm in a wrong pattern since their academic life and they have not only left the circle of Islᾱm, but have also produced a number of writings against Islᾱm and the Prophet of Islᾱm. Many people can be cited as examples who converted from Islᾱm to Christianity or to other religions and since then have been writing books and articles against Islᾱm; namely Ibn Warrᾱq from India, ‘Alῑ Sῑnᾱ from Iran and Nonie Darwῑsh from Egypt etc. As a research scholar, having gone through the writings of Contemporary Apostates, feels the importance and need of a scholarly analysis of their work.</p> Muhammad Usman Prof. Dr. Zia Ullah Al-Azhari Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 37 50 یروشلم سے متعلق یہودی ادعائے ملکیت کا علمی وتحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/4 <p>Jerusalem is a sacred and desputed area amongst the Jews, Christians and Muslims. Jews, Christians and Muslims are with their own viewpoint with regard to its possession, since 1948, this Holy City is in the control of Jews. The occupying force i.e Isrᾱῑllists opinions that Jerulalem is the place of their forefathers and they are the legal heir to this Holy place. Since 1948 they have controlled all the Jerusalem and the almost area of Palestine. The Jews have their claim of Greter Isrᾱ,ῑl. Similarly the Christians are of the opinions that being the birth place of ḤaḍratMessiaḥ, Jerulsalem is the city of Christians. It is a ground reality that alongside of the Wall of Hcikal “Daware- Garya” there is located the Church of Christains. Beside this, the Muslims who were replaced by the migrated Jews are the permanent inhabitansts of Jerusalem. The Holy Prophet of Islam S.A.W dring his journey of ascending came to this Holy Place Mosque of Aqṣa” and led the prophets by prayer. In the time of Ḥaḍrat ‘Umar R.A Caliphate, this place was conquered by Muslims forces and then oweners of the mosque, the Christians voluntarly handed over the keys of the Mosque. Afterwords, in the era of Ṣalᾱh ud Dῑn Ayūbῑ, it was again controlled by the Muslim troops. After the 2<sup>nd</sup> world war ended the world forces decided to gather the Jews who were dispersed in the world in Juraselem and hence they settled here under a treaty. Since then their occupation in Palestine is prevailing. The almost 95% of Palestine land is In the control of Isrᾱ,ῑl. This article shall explore the facts that among three comnnunities i.e Jews, Christians and Muslims being with their own stand of possession whoever is legal with respects to their arguments and reality.</p> Zia Ullah Jadoon Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 51 66 اداری نظام اورحاکم کے فرائض و حقوقشرعی اورعصری تناظر میں ایک جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/5 <p>Islam owns a comprehensive code of administration. This code implies the essential components and constitutions with their jurisdiction tomaintain the system of a state. The Administrative comprises the ruler and the executive body in his subordination whom selection is made to ensure the public welfare by maintenance of law and order. Similarly it plans and organizes the strategies and oversees the system. As sincerity towards assignment and purity in conduct are the signs of their success, likewise mismanagement, the negligence towards duties and brutal attitude collapse the system.In this regard, Islam present a due guideline for executive body. In this research paper, the rights and duties of rulers are presented from Islamic sources with reference to the current perspective.The devotion to work, sense of responsibility and preference to public priorities and interests are the duties of a ruler. Similarly, the unconditional support and confidence by the public are his rights.In this paper, the data has been collected from primary and secondary sources.The methodology therein followed isconductive and almost descriptive. Similarly,the concluding remarks have been added in the end.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Dr. Muhammad Naeem Dr. Mohammad Zubiar Dr. Irfan Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 67 82 ہیلتھ انشورنس اور اس کے متبادلاتایک علمی وتحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/6 <p>Insurance refers to a mean of protection from financial loss. This concept developed when there happened a huge loss to human being or their property. Actually it was introduced to share the loss and risks of the community. Afterwards it took the shape of trade and was utilized for commercial purposes. Nowadays it is functional with different names such as Insurances of life, Health or Medical Insurance, Auto or Vehicle Insurance, Property Insurance, Burial Insurance, Income Protection Insurance, Liability Insurance, Casualty Insurance etc. Health insurance is used as an alternative health care coverage i.e it covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses. The article in hand presents a scholarly study of Health Insurance in the light of Islamic Sharῑ’ah.</p> Dr. Muhammad Tahir Dr. Abzahir Khan Dr. Saeed ur Rahman Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 83 94 علم الفرائض کےچند مشہورمسائل اوران کاحل:قدیم وجدید حسابی طریقوں کے تناظرمیں ایک علمی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/7 <p>The knowledge of inheritance has great importance in Islamic sciences. It is known as the half of the knowledge with respect to its significance. It has been a source of great interest among different Muslim scholars &amp; rulers in different ages. Sometimes a scholar was appointed as judge after solving a complicated problem pertaining to inheritance. Even some problems became popular for their complex nature &amp; for being controversial among different Muslim scholars of this field. Some of these problems are known with a specific title, because they reflect the mind of the specific scholar. Some are even entitled due to occurrence of certain event. Many such famous problems of inheritance have been discussed in the given article by explaining the cause of naming with brief explanation and their mathematical solutions through ancient and modern methods.</p> Dr. Sohail Anwar Adil Khan Dr. Najmul Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 95 114 تجلی اور رؤیت باری تعالیٰ کے متعلق شیخ احمدسرہندیؒ کا نقطہ نظر: ایک تحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/8 <p>Since the era of companions of Holy Prophet (PBUH), contradiction is observed about the sighting of Lord’s light in this world and afterlife. This theological concept has been described in co-relation with the basic Sufi term Tajallῑ<em>.</em> It is described as manifestation which means the gift of Allah to advanced mystic in which the seeker finds an inkling of the divine majesty and grandeur by way of an illumination. It talks about the aspect of divine disclosure and it emphasizes Allah’s majesty and transformation wrought in the seeker in its wake.&nbsp; This term is co-related with contemplation (Mushᾱhadah)also. In this regard, Shaikh Ahmad’s concept about the sighting of Lord’s light is quite balanced to correlate the contradictory theories. The discussion has been premeditated to explore the view of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi about manifestation and his concept about sighting of Lord’s light in this world and afterlife. The conductive method has been adopted for explanation of data. The complex terms have been explained and comprehended. The various opinions have been compared that are contradictory with the view point of Shaikh Aḥmad Sarhindi.</p> Hafiz Atta Ullah Mustafa Prof. Dr. Hamayun Abbas Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 115 132 صوبہ سندھ کے علماء کی تصنیفی وتحقیقی خدمات کا ایک جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/9 <p>The province of Sindh has some prominent features with respect to its historical back ground. It is known as Bᾱb-ul-Islᾱm for it had been the gateway of Islᾱm to sub contnent. In this province numerious Ṣūfῑs, came and controlled the people to Islᾱm. Similarly of Muslim Scholars established the religious institutes in different areas of Sindh. It is said that more than 500 institutes were functioned in District Thatta. The contribution of ‘Ulᾱma in various fields are evident from their books in different languages. They are available in ‘Arabic, Sindhi and almost in Urdu languages. The Sindh province is distinguished after the indepence of Pakistan. The services of ‘Ulᾱma had broght an effective charges in society. So, in this article the research and publication made by the Sindhi Scholars have been presented in scholarly manners. Which shall not only familiarized the readers but shall also be a back for further research.</p> Muhammad Ibrahim Dr. Ikram Ullah Dr. Junaid Akbar Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 133 146 قرآنکی تفسیر مىں علومِ عربیۃ كا كردار: ایک تحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/10 <p>It is the excellence of ‘Arabic that the Holy Qurᾱn has been revealed in this language. The Holy Qurᾱn has described this language as the most eloquent and pure means of conversation. The ‘Arabic Tafsῑr are the original and most authentic sources of Tafsῑr. The most acceptable Tafsῑr is Tafsῑr of Qurᾱn by Qurᾱn itself, Tafsῑr by Sunnah, Tafsῑr by the sayings of the Ṣaḥᾱbah and then by language and opinion.In this research paperm the role of ‘Arabic sciences has been highlighted about its application in Tafsῑr. The arguments have been added in shape of various examples from ‘Arabic literature. It shall also explore the need and importance of knowing the ‘Arabic for Mufasirs.</p> Falak Naz Prof, Dr. Musrrat Jamal Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 147 166 وجوه الترجيح عند الشيخ أمير علي في تفسيره مواهب الرحمٰن المسمىٰ بجامع البياندراسة تحليلية https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/11 <p>Mūlvi Syed ‘Amῑr ‘Ali’s interpretation (Tafsῑr) of the Holy Qurᾱn named “Mawᾱhib-al-Raḥmᾱn” is a well-known work, published in Urdu language. The author of this interpretation is one of the reputed scholars and had high status in the Indian Subcontinent. His interpretation is authentic and has won broad acceptance by his contemporaries. It consists of both categories of tafsῑr, Tafsῑr bi-al-mᾱthūr (Narrated tafsῑr) i.e. saying of the Holy proghet (SAW), saying of his companions and saying of the followers of the companions, and tafsῑr bi-al-rᾱy (tafsῑr by opinion), i.e. issues of linguistics, grammar, theology, statements of the jurists, doctrines of jurisprudence, opinions of the scholars and interpretators. The basic distinct feathers of this tafsῑr is that the author of the tafsῑr discusses different personal opinions of the scholars and interpretators in the interpretation of verses, writes their evidences and he then unequivocally prefers one opinion among various opinions on the basis of solid reasons and principles. Mūlvi Syed Amῑr ‘Ali prefers to analytical method in his tafsῑr and his method for preferences is that after discussing different opinions and choosing one he says: “this is the most correct” or “this is true” or “this statement seems true”. Mūlvi Syed Amῑr ‘Alῑ’s preferences are based on eight solid principles and grounds, i.e. The Qurᾱn, authentic Hadῑth, apparent evidence of Qurᾱn, the reason for the revelation, the context concerned, general acceptance, the actual meaning of the word, and classical ‘Arabic. In this study, such principles and grounds would be examined and explained. It would be examined what are the grounds of his preferences and to what extent these preferences are applicable to the methods and principles deviced in the science of tafsῑr.</p> Sayyed Maisoor Hussain Dr. Hifazat Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 167 188 الآثار العلمية للشیخ عبدالحکیم السیالکوتي دراسة تحقيقية https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/12 <p>As knowledge is the hidden treasur of Muslim and the sacred hertage of Prophets, so the Muslims all over the world have shown deep interest in its acquiring. The land of Pakistan is rich in the existence of many religious scholars. Among them one is Mūlᾱna ‘Abdul Ḥakῑm Siᾱlkūti who was a prominent scholar died in 1647 A.D. He was a great scholar and unique philosopher of seventeenth century. Maulᾱna ‘Abdul Ḥakῑm wrote his prestigious footnotes or hawashi on many primary sources of Theology, Rhetoric, Grammar and Exegetics of Qurᾱn. His ‘Arabic writings considered by the scholars as a fabulous and master piece in the relevant fields. He has a specific and unique style of writing which had been admired by the great scholars of Islamic world. In this article we will present a critical and analytical study of the methodology of his work which helps to determine his rank among the scholars of his era.</p> Asif Ali Raza Dr. Aftikhar Ahmad Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 189 202 The Origin of language An Analysis of Theories from Qurᾱnic Perspective https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/13 <p>This research article is a critical investigation of the origin of language in light of the Holy Qurᾱn. History states theories in origin of language which were practiced to answer the question of origin of language. The researcher has quoted and studied the theories in the field of evolution of language. The verses of the Holy Qurᾱn are stated in order to highlight the position and origin of language. The Qurᾱnic Arabic Corpus is used to present the concordance and collocation of the term language (tongue). The theories on origin of language have found with shortcomings and weak based arguments. Arabic language is the mother of all languages. Language existence is traced back with pre-world times, Allah spoke (Arabic language) to angels in regards of creation of man on earth. The constant repetition of words qāla&nbsp;1618 times and qawl&nbsp;92 times in the Holy Qurᾱn are also the evidences of language beginning when nothing was existed. Allah created first man (Ᾱdam-A.S) with the brain capacity of comprehending and speaking language. The findings suggest, language is purely gifted by Allah. It is a bestowed power of man to survive with effective communication on earth. In this research paper, the theories about the origin of language have been analyzed from Qurᾱnic perspective which shall be a productive addition.</p> Muhammad Saleem Dr. Janas Khan Dr. Muhammad Naeem Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 01 16 Deoband Inspired Politico-Educational Movement in Pakhtūnkhwa during the British Rᾱj https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/14 <p>With the arrival of the British, the English education system became operational in the Pashtūn region. The Pashtūns viewed the new education system as a threat to their religio-cultural ethos thanks to Lord Macauley statement about cultural transformation in India as a pre-requisite for British perpetuation in power. The Deoband Madrassa was already endeavoring to protect Islamic tradition in the sub-continent. In the second decade of the twentieth century, the Ḥaji Ṣᾱhib of Turangzai and ‘Abdul Ghaffᾱr Khᾱn, under inspiration from Deoband, started establishing religious seminaries in Pakhtūnkhwa with a view to ward off the effect of the new education system. The movement subsequently gained momentum under Bakht Jamᾱl of Ṣwᾱbi and Mian Aḥmad Shᾱh of Chᾱrsadda which the government viewed as a challenge to its educational institutions. This article examines as to how the British authorities looked upon these Madrassas and how the Pashtūns worked against adversities.</p> Samin Jan Dr. A.Z Hilali Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 17 32 Conflict Resolution and Peace Building Exploring Perspectives of Different Faith Communities of Khyber Pakhtūnkhwa https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/15 <p>Khyber Pakhtūnkhwa is passing through sever crises where minorities are more prone to be under target. Islᾱm gives the message of peace, harmony, respect of all human beings. However, Islᾱm has been portrayed to be the reason of conflict and atrocities and Pashtuns are popularized to be extremists and terrorists. In this context, the present study is conducted to explore perspectives of different faith communities regarding conflict resolution and peace building in Khyber Pakhtūnkhwa. The study uses quantitative method of research and questionnaire with close and open ended questions for data collection. The study is longitudinal in nature and data is collected from 180 members in five districts of Khyber Pakhtūnkhwa in three different periods. It has been observed that respondents are considering women and youth role very vital in inter-faith activities, conflict resolution and peace building. The perception regarding media role has been improved during three successive surveys while at the same time media role is subjected to certain limitations i.e., media is required to promote harmony among different sects of the society, and not to float hate materials that can possibly provoke chaos in the society.</p> Dr. Syed Rashid Ali Muhammad Ishaq Shah Saud Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 33 48 Women’s Right to Education An Analysis in Perspective of Islamic Teachings https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/16 <p>In today’s world almost all societies are aware of the importance of female education. Islam is a complete code of life, where the concept of female education is clear and important. There is no restriction and confinement on female education.The teachings without any discrimination are alike for both genders. Therefore, being a Muslim, it is our responsibility to encourage female education and enhance their role as nation builders. Surprisingly, Islamic teachings regarding women education are either misrepresented or confused. There is lack of clear stance about this important matter. In&nbsp; our glorious many female scholars and women held important positions after gaining higher education but this aspect is mainly ignored. This article will explore this issue in the light of Qurᾱn and Ḥadῑth which shall bring clarity towards this issue and the misconception shall be resolved.</p> Dr. Farah Khan Shagufta Gul Dr. Muhammad Zahid Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 49 60