Tahdhib-al-Afkar https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa <p><iframe src="https://tahdhibalafkar.com/" width="100%" height="950"> </iframe></p> en-US Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2411-6211 تفسیرِ قرآن میں علامہ نصیرالدین ہونزائی کے رجحانات کاتحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/18 <p>Qurᾱn is the core source of Islamic teachings. Therefore, Qurᾱn’s translation and explication have remained focal point of interest in all ages. Qurᾱn has the unique attribute of being unchanged or unadulterated (so guaranteed by Allah), however its explication and Tafsῑr has been attempted in all ages. There have been some kind of Tafsῑr which have not been approved and accepted by the major sects of Muslim Ummah. As for instance the Ismᾱ‘lῑ explication of Qurᾱn has been rejected by Shi‘ah and Sunni, however a well known scholar ‘Allᾱma Nasῑr ud Dῑn of Hunzᾱi sect (which is an evolved shape of Ismᾱ‘ili sect in the contemporary times) has attempted new spiritual teachings in his latest Tafsῑr and Explication of Qurᾱn. This article aims to evaluate the contemporary trends in Tafsῑr and explication of Qurᾱn by ‘Allᾱma Nasῑr ud Dῑn of Hunzᾱi.</p> Zia ur Rahman Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 01 24 جغرافیۂ قرآن کےسفرناموں میں مولانا مودودیؒ اور مولانا شیر علی شاہؒ کےمنہج کاتقابلی مطالعہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/19 <p>In the historical literature of Islam, the travelogues of Qurᾱnic land has a great importance. Because it covers the geography of the Holy Qurᾱn and information about these regions too. Some travelogues are Exist in the Arabian Peninsula. &nbsp;In which the travelogue of Ibn Baṭūṭa is very famous. Regarding to the importance of the Holy places, Historians and Commentators have written regular books on the same topic. Which is a reference for an ancient books of history. In this regard Ya'qūb Ḥamavῑ’s book “Mu‘jam al Buldᾱn”, Ibn Jawzῑ’s book “Faḍᾱel e al Quds”, Maulᾱna Syed Sulaimᾱn Nadvῑ’s book “Arḍ ul Qurᾱn” and Dr. Shauqi Abu Khalῑl’s book “Aṭlas ul Qurᾱn” were very famous. Maulᾱna Syed Abul A‘lᾱ Maudūdi and Dr. Shir ‘Ali Shᾱh also wrote travelogues on Qurᾱnic geography. Maulᾱnᾱ Maudūdi remained for 50 days in the Holy places and compile his travelogue and Dr. Shir ‘Ali Shᾱh used to perform Ḥajj and visit the holy places by land in 1966. He reached to Ḥaramῑn by the way of Irᾱn, Irᾱq, Jordon and Palestine. He also remained for seventeen years in Madῑna Munnawara. In this period he observed all these places closely. Overall, the characteristics of these two travelogues are almost same, however in some places there are some minor differences. Therefore, in this research paper a comparative analysis of these two travelogues has been taken in detail.</p> Dr. Karim Dad Saeedulhaq Jadoon Mumtaz Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 25 42 ترتیبِ سورمیں اختلاف اور اس حوالے سےامام ابن زبیرؒ اورامام سیوطیؒ کاموقف: ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/20 <p>The Holy Qurᾱn is the last book of Allah Almighty, revealed to the Prophet Muḥammad (SAW) about in twenty-three years of duration. There is a relationship between the Sūrahs and verses of the Holy Qurᾱn. This is a science known by people with a specific knowledge. It has been an issue among the Muslim scholars that whether this relationship among the Sūrahs and verses is indicated by the Holy Prophet Muḥammad (SAW) or his companions did it. ‘Allᾱma Ibn Zubair and ‘Allᾱma Syūṭi are among those scholars. Ibn Zubair wrote a book Al-Burhᾱn and ‘Allᾱma Syūṭi wrote Aṣrᾱr Tartῑb e Qurᾱn. Both the scholars discussed the issue of relationships of the chapters and verses because many secrets reveal to a person when known this relationship. Both the writers presented them in their own specific ways and mastery. The first author Ibn Zubair was a scholar who wrote his book on this topic and ‘Allᾱma Syūṭi also mentioned him in his book specially written on the sciences of the Holy Qurᾱn, commonly known as Al-Etqᾱn fῑ ‘Ulūm ul Qurᾱn. ‘Allᾱma Syūṭi is among the scholars who addressed this issue of the relationship of Sūras and verses to disclose the views of both the scholars (Ibn Zubair and ‘Allᾱma Syūṭi) on this issue and have discussed the views of other scholars on this topic.&nbsp; We have tried to discuss different views and the preference given to any view and why it is so.</p> Akbar Ali Dr. Janas Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 43 62 خارجہ تعلقات کےنبوی اصول اور عصرحاضرمیں ان کا اطلاق https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/21 <p>The Prophet Muḥammad (PBUH) set the &nbsp;most perfect standards for the conduct of international relations and diplomats as well. When the Holy Prophet (PBUH) migrated to Madῑna and founded Islam’s first state, He was conscious of maintaining cordial relations between Muslims and other communities, so He concluded the Charter of Madῑna. He made diplomatic relations with other countries. In this regard He made agreements, wrote letters and sent ambassadors. Under the directives of the Holy Prophet some companions learnt foreign languages in order to pursue meaningful diplomacy with those states where they were sent. The Holy Prophet exhibited excellent diplomatic skills that went a long way in establishing good and friendly relations between nascent Islamic state and foreign countries. In This paper the principles of International relations of the Holy Prophet Muḥammad PBUH have been discussed briefly and also suggested valid solutions regarding Foreign Relations in the cotemporary era.</p> Dr. Ahmad Raza Dr. Muhammad Shahid Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 63 82 معجزاتُ النبیﷺ مخطوطہالاصطفاء لبیان معانی الشفاءکی روشنی میں https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/22 <p>What has bestowed upon the Prophets is known as miracle because laymen lack this power. It has two types. One of them although, is in the limitation of human power but they surrender to do so. Such act of powerlessness on behalf of laymen is clear sign that it is the only power of God. As Jews were abstained from killing themselves. Another type is that act which beyond human power in the sense that they cannot bring its resemblance as to bring to life the death. Also, the miracles of our Holy Prophet Muḥammad (S.A.W) are categorized into two types.&nbsp; The first includes those miracles which are completely known and transmitted with continuity as the Holy Qurᾱn which is free of any doubts and differences. Other type of miracles is the one in which the message was reached to us with uncertain and least verified evidences unlike the first one. The later one is of two kinds; one is the type wherein the matter is well-known and narrated by so many narrators. For instance, as the water spouted out between the fingers of our Holy Prophet Muḥammad (S.A.W). Another kind is of wherein the narration is conveyed only by one or two narrators as the miracle of splitting of the moon. In this article this issue has been discussed critically.</p> Zia ur Rahman Dr. Ziaullah Al Azhari Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 83 94 ڈاکٹر وید پرکاش کی کتاب کلکی اوتار اور حضرت محمدﷺکا تحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/23 <p>If the situation is seen in the present, many Hindu writers have written books about the Ḥaḍrat Muḥammad (Peace Be Upon Him), such as Ṣwᾱmi Lakshman Prasᾱd, Dr.Vaid Prakᾱsh, Prof Rᾱm Krishnᾱ Rᾱo, Lakshaman Nᾱrᾱen, Mᾱlik Rᾱm and Pandit Dayanand Sᾱras watῑ etc. In fact, the article under discussion is to review Dr.Vaid Prakᾱsh's book “Kalki Avatᾱr and the Prophet Muḥammad (Peace Be Upon Him), which the learned author has tried hard to prove from the Holy books of Hinduism that Ḥaḍrat Muḥammad (Peace Be Upon Him) is the last messenger of Allah and no messenger will come after him. The learned writer has also written that the Kalki Avatᾱr, which is waiting for the Hindu has passed in the desert area of ‘Arabia long before today.&nbsp; The characteristics of&nbsp; Dr. Vaid Prakᾱsh described by the Messenger of Allah (Peace Be Upon Him) are also present in the Ḥadῑth and Holy Qurᾱn. For example, the light face, uses of Camels and twelve wives etc. Dr. Vaid Prakᾱsh has proved to all the World from his Religious Books, &nbsp;that the Prophet Muhammad(Peace Be Upon Him) is the last Messenger of Allah. &nbsp;Now the Hindus should admit the Prophet hood of Ḥaḍrat Muḥammad (Peace Be Upon Him) and believe on Allah and the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him). In the article under study this issue has been discussed scholarly.</p> Naseen Ullah Dr. Ziaullah Al Azhari Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 95 106 روایات مرض الموت اوروفات النبیﷺ کا تحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/24 <p>Prophet Muḥammad (PBUH) became ill after he had returned to Madina from the Farewell Pilgrimage.&nbsp;He was suffering from headaches that some times became unbearable and a high fever. The health of Prophet Muḥammad (PBUH) suddenly deteriorated. According to ‘Ᾱisha, &nbsp;Muḥammad(PBUH) said in a low voice "Lᾱ ilᾱha illallᾱh, how hard it is to give away your soul", and then he abandoned his soul in her arms saying: "al-rafῑq al-a‘lᾱ" (to the most divine friend). The death of Prophet Muḥammad (PBUH) deeply saddened all the ṣaḥᾱba. Indeed it was the first historical crisis faced by the Islamic community. So great was the love of the Companions for the Prophet that they could not part with his love. Many narrations related to this great tragedy have been mentioned in the collection of &nbsp;ḥadith.&nbsp; This article provides an overview of these narrations that either these are Ṣaḥiḥ or Ḍa‘ῑf.</p> Dr. Syyed Bacha Agha Dr. Muhammad Khubaib Dr. Ikram ul Haq Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 107 130 درایت حدیث میں عائشہ صدیقہ رضی اللہ عنہا کی فقاہت کاتحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/25 <p>Ahadῑth of the Prophet Muḥammad (SAW) are the 2<sup>nd</sup> basic origin and the functional translation of Qurᾱn as well. The defense of Ḥadῑth is made possible because of &nbsp;Ṣaḥᾱba (R.A), Ṭᾱbi‘ῑn and Ṭab‘ Ṭᾱbi‘ῑn. They conveyed all those Ahadῑth constantly as it as to the three generations continuously. In Ṣaḥᾱba (R.A) there were few persons who narrated thousands of &nbsp;Ahadῑth. In which ‘Ᾱyesha (RA) is the second in the list, who narrated 2210 Ahadῑth. But her comprehension, interpretation in narratives is more distinct and can be distinguished from others. We have discussed all these qualities in this research article. Not only she narrated the Ahadῑth but also interpreted the Islamic law by making correspondence of hadith by word and deed with events and historical stories. The main theme of thin study is that, what was ‘Ᾱyesha (RA) criteria in obtaining and acceptance of Ḥadῑth. From all these discussion it can be concluded that ‘Ᾱyesha (RA) interpreted all the narrations on the basis of her own experience, observations and according to the rules and regulations of Qurᾱn and sunnah. She tested and explained the Ḥadῑth not only she narrated but also interpreted which is the solid proof of her comprehension. In this article ‘Ᾱyesha’s investigation and comprehension of Ḥadῑth has been discussed in detail.</p> Dr. Muhammad Riaz Khan Al-Azhari Muhammad Safi Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 131 146 سیرت نگاری میں ابن اسحاق کا مقام ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/26 <p>After the Holy Qurᾱn, Ḥadith and Sῑrah is the ultimate source of guidance for all human beings. In fact just like other fields, Sῑrat Nigᾱr has a very close relation to the life of&nbsp; Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Sῑrah is the field in which many scholars shown their interest.&nbsp; Muḥammad bin Isḥᾱq is one of them, who was born in 80 Hijri at Madῑna.&nbsp; He is known as predecessor in Sῑrah writing. His book "Sῑrah ibn Isḥᾱq" is considered as the original source in this field, But there are some observations regarding his authenticity which propagate a diverse sort of thinking about him. In the article under reference we have tried to bring these observations under discussion and identify their position in light of scholastic arguments.</p> Dr. Gulzar Ali Sana Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 147 156 علامہ تفتازانیؒ اورمختصر المعانی میں ان کامنہج ایک تحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/27 <p>The Holy Qurᾱn being the complete, perpetual, and everlasting message of Allah &nbsp;Almighty, revealed upon the Prophet Muḥammad (SAW), for the guidance of humanity irrespective of color, race, gender and Religion. The scientific, philosophical, historical, philological and religious evidences prove that the Holy Qurᾱn has been preserved from all kinds of human amalgamations in the history. It had always been the source of interpretation and inference of various ‘Ulūm for religious and other scholars as well. They had been deriving Fiqh, Sciences of &nbsp;Fiqh, Sciences of Hadῑth, Sciences of lexical, syntax, Morphology and Rhetoric etc. The Science of Rhetoric, being essence of the Holy Qurᾱn and ‘Arabic Language has been focused by various linguistic scholars to disseminate its message eloquently across the globe. Keeping in view the important aspect of the Rhetoric, ‘Allᾱma Taft<strong>ᾱ</strong>zᾱni(RA) had prepared the great compendium of Mukhtaṣar al Ma‘ᾱni in 8<sup>th</sup> Hijri. Since that, this book had been the integral part of the curriculum being thought in Dῑni Madᾱris. The aim of this study is to undertake the Methodology of Mukhtaṣar al Ma‘ᾱni, its worth and value among religious curriculum, scholars and students.</p> Haroon ur Rasheed Dr. Najmul Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 157 172 پانی کی حفاظت اور اسلامی تعلیمات ایک تحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/28 <p>Water is one of the blessings of Almighty Allah, a natural things on which the life of human beings, animals, and plants depend. If the water continues to be wasted, there will be a shortage of it. Similarly, even if it becomes contaminated, the lives living things will be endangered. According to estimate, contaminated water is the source of many deadly diseases such as hepatitis, diarrhea, and typhoid etc. Water pollution is caused in several ways, including chemical of factories, hospitals and human waste. If it not disposed properly, it dissolves in water and when mixed with clean water of canals, rivers and with groundwater become contaminated and thus this becomes harmful to agriculture and contaminates crops and vegetables, similarly by polluted drinking water it causes diseases. Islamic teachings emphasizes the importance of protecting and keeping water clean because just as it is a means of survival, and also essential for purity. It has been declared as half faith and has been made obligatory for the performance of worship. This article emphasizes water conservation in the light of Islamic teachings. It is hoped that this article will be able to play an important role in water conservation.</p> Dr. Muhammad Naeem Dr. Abad ur Rahman Dr. Muhammad Zubiar Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 173 188 اسلام میں فوڈ سیفٹی اور کوالٹی کنٹرول کا تصور ایک تحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/29 <p>Allah has associated the conservation of life with food and thus created an inclination in human mind towards it. Man by nature likes to eat clean and healthy food. That is the reason that one of the reasons of his economic struggle is the attainment of food. That is why, Sharῑ‘a&nbsp; has stressed for the man to strive for such food which is ḥalal and ṭayyib i.e. pure and clean internally as well as externally. The elements of hygiene and food safety should be maintained to ensure its external purity because thousands of people die every year due to unhygienic food intake. Likewise, its internal purity may be attained by its being ḥalal; because, such food has the potential to guarantee healthy well-being. When a society will succeed to maintain a harmonization between Sharῑ‘a’s order and human behavior as a result food security will be achieved. In this research paper food safety and quality control in briefly discussed in Islamic perspective.</p> Dr. Shahid Aamin Adil Khan Dr. Sohail Anwar Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 189 198 خواب کاقضیہ دینیاتی،ثقافتی اور سائنسی مطالعہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/30 <p>It is a universal fact that every living person sees dreams. The most interesting phenomenon about dream is that, things and world of dreams look different from real world, but the things seen in dreams mostly belong to the real world. One third of total life is spent while sleeping. Our brain is active while we are a sleep. The brain keeps us busy and shows dreams of different nature. Good dreams have a distinct place in Islam. In the Holy Qurᾱn these dreams are called revelation, and in the Hadith they are termed as herbing of good news. The dreams of the prophets have been given the place of revelation and to those of the Sufis and saints; they have been attributed the place of intuitions. In other revealed religions, the place of dream is that of a vision. In Old Testament, it is said “that God speaks once, rather twice; if man is not listener, then at night when heavy sleep haunts people and they are on beds, during sleep, in dream he opens his ears and he makes his psyche incused with knowledge so as to prevent him from that thing and conceals pride from human beings. He supervises his soul so that he should not fall into the ditch and saves his life by sparing it from sword. He then gets warning on his bed and his bones break”. On the other hand, the scientific approach regarding dream is very different. According to Freud’s, “dreams are the quintessence of experiences and observations of the present which indicates to the future. According to him, dreams are part of the construction of a human personality and that they are the part of our unconscious. His views are totally different from those of the Freud who considered dreams as the projection of the (libidos) desires reared by the people in the early stages of life. &nbsp;Sometime it takes us to the world which is quite unfamiliar to us. Some dreams remain in our memory while others are forgotten. The paper under study strives to analyze and compare the ideas of Freud with two revealed religions about the nature of dream.</p> Dr. Hafiz Salih ud Din Mufti Irfan Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 199 206 خواتین سے متعلق قبائلی رسوم ورواج فقہ السیرۃ اور پاکستانی قوانین کے تناظرمیں ایک جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/31 <p>Allah Almighty made man and woman a source of peace for each other, but this goal can be achieved if both sexes respect each other's rights, which order has given by the Islamic law to everyone. The rights preserved by Sharῑ‘ah are the guarantee of a peaceful family and social life. But unfortunately in the tribal areas the women are deprived of their basic rights and freedoms. As a result the women of these areas are suffering from various Psychological and mental diseases and on the basis of these facts women are unable to fulfill their social responsibilities which is an injustice to a healthy society. Although different organizations have been working for women's rights and laws are being made through the Legislative Assemblies, and till now no significant improvement has been made in the situation of tribal women. Before the revelation of the Holy Prophet, the society had fallen into these rituals and The Prophet S.A.W very wisely put an end to the cruel tribal traditions and customs by presenting himself as a role model. Therefore, even in the present era Women's secure lives and legitimate rights is possible when a permanent solution to this problem should be searched in light of Sῑrah. In this regard, the existing laws in Pakistan should also be reviewed to find out how these laws can be made more effective in respect of women tribal rituals and customs. In this research paper these things are discussed in detail.</p> Dr. Abzahir Khan Dr. Muhammad Tahir Dr. Hafiz Hifazat Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 207 222 پاکستانی سودی بینکوں کی شاخوں کا اسلامی بینکوں میں منتقلی کے طرق کاشرعی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/32 <p>The recent success and growth of Islamic banking system in Pakistan compelled so many organizations offering conventional banking to convert into Islamic banking market. State bank of Pakistan as a regulator has permitted conventional banks to convert into Islamic banking market by adopting different methods. One of them is conversion of Conventional Banking Branches (CBB’s) into Islamic Banking Branches (IBB’s). The methods were first adopted by The Bank of Khyber in 2003-04. After that other banks also followed the same step by converting their existing conventional branches into Islamic banking branches. In this paper different methods adopted by various banks are discussed in detail. Guidelines issued by SBP are also elaborated. Further, the Sharῑ‘ah principles and guidelines for each method is deliberated in detail. It is observed that even though conversion is very beneficial for Islamic banking industry, the relevant Islamic principles for each method shall be adhered strictly to make it acceptable under sharῑ’ah law.</p> Dr. Muhammad Mushtaq Ahamd Dr. Syyed Naeem Badshah Bukhari Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 223 236 عصبیت کی روک تھام کےحوالے سے سائبرکرائم ایکٹ 2016کاشرعی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/33 <p>Unity, brotherhood and harmony is the most important factor for the development and survival of human beings. Human intellect has great vastness. There may be difference of opinion among people about a single issue. which cause repulsion or attraction in any field. Islam has bound its followers in the net of fraternity and belief. There are two types of opinion, one is related to faith and other is related to its components. Islam has different school of thoughts and there is no basic difference among them. But individually there is great difference in each sect, but insulting and degradation of each sect on the basis of these differences in no way a good posture. Due to lack of knowledge many new sects were formed on behalf of differences. Even they are reluctant to offer prayers with each other. According to golden principles of The Holy Qurᾱn <strong>تَعَالَوْاإِلَى كَلِمَةٍسَوَاءٍبَيْنَنَاوَبَيْنَكُمْ</strong> has the same value for all sects. In these differences Sectarianism is the most serious problem than any other facing to everyone. In this article an efforts have been made to high light the principles which are mentioned in the cyber crime act, 2016 to get rid of sectarianism in Islamic perspective.</p> Shah Hussain, Dr. Hafiz Salih ud Din Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 237 250 امن کے فروغ میں ہندو اورمسلم تصوف کا کردار https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/34 <p>This article Provides a description about the role of Mysticism (Hindu and Muslim) in the promotion of peace. Mysticism is the English word used in different religion in different names. In Islam the word taṣawuf has been derived from the Arabic word “Ṣūf” wool or from “Ṣafᾱ” means cleanliness. In Hinduism the word bakhti is used for mysticism, which means the intense devotion to personal aspect of deity. Both the Islamic and Hindu mysticism played a vital role in the extension of peace. It was due to the teachings of Hindu and Muslim saints like Ḥaḍrat Dᾱtᾱ Ganj Bakhsh ‘Alῑ Hijwῑri, Khawaja Mo‘ῑnuddῑn Chishti and Bhagat Kabῑr Dᾱs (d.1518 A.D). Taṣawuf and bhakti teaches us real love to Allah or Brahma. With the help of real love we can achieve a permanent peace in the world. In the article under reference the issue has been analyzed.</p> Muhammad Shaukat Iqbal Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 251 268 یہودی مذہبی رسوم اور تہواروں کے معاشرتی اثرات کا ایک جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/35 <p>The Jews are the descendants of Ḥaḍrat Jacob ‘Aly Salam and they had twelve tribes. Most of the prophets were sent in this tribe. Many rituals were took place in Jewish society and as a result religious rites and celebrations being observed by millions at same point of time, which have direct and indirect impact on society. This article analyzed seven major Jewish rites and religious celebrations: Al-Sabt, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Saykot, Hanukkah, Purim, and Eid Fiṣḥ for their social impacts on Isrᾱiel and on other citizens of globe. It is discovered that the observance results in promotion of social coherence, human welfare, family-based values, and positive introduction and establishment of Jewish symbols in non-Jewish societies.</p> Dr. Nasir ud Din Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 269 286 فقہ حنفی کے ارتقاء میں صوبہ بلوچستان کی اہمیت ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/36 <p>Like the Qur'an, the jurisprudence is regarded as the source of Islamic Shariah and the factors which have been acting in the apparent cause of the protection of the Qur'an and the manner in which they are operating are protected by the same reasons.. Different Jurisprudential schools of thought came into being, but only four schools of thoughts were generally accepted and the others disappeared with the passage of time.</p> <p>In these four jurisprudential schools of thought, the Hanafi is a prominent figure, and has been distinguished from the rest of them by the majority of its followers<strong>, </strong>from Imam Abu Hanifa to the contemporary. There are basically two important factors in protecting the jurisprudence of the Hanafi, one is the scholar and the other jurisprudential literature in the Hanafi jurisprudence. Due to these two reasons, the Hanafi jurisprudence has been safe for 13 centuries. Pakistan is one of the leading countries of the Hanafi jurisprudence in modern times, Sindh is generally regarded as a scholarly leader in Pakistan, and Karachi in particular, but Balochistan province also has a very profound and prominent influence. Holds There is a need to highlight the evolution of the jurisprudence of Hanafi province in Balochistan. In view of this requirement the lying article is to be answered.</p> Muhammad Naeem Jan, Dr. Junaid Akbar Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 287 308 شہاب الدین محمد شاہ جہاں کے عہد حکومت میں فنون لطیفہ ایک تحقیقی جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/37 <p>Fine Arts open up the possibilities for a human being by creating creativity in his life, giving him the opportunity to create color in his life. It is the fine arts that enhance the economic, social, cultural and creative environment of human life. The fine arts relate to humans at all stages of life, in various forms. Performances are the best expression of the aesthetic sense of a particular group; With regard to the fine arts in the subcontinent, it has been of special importance. In this article, it has examined the extent to which the arts developed during the reign of Mughal ruler Shahᾱb ud Dῑn Shᾱh Jahᾱn in the subcontinent. What has the impact on the quality of life and how this development has impacted social revolution? A look at the history makes it clear that although the Muslim period in the subcontinent had begun long ago, it was the Mughal family who Special attention was paid to the fine arts. Various arts developed during different Mughal emperors.</p> Dr. Munazza Hayat Dr. Syyed Naeem Badshah Bukhari Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 309 322 ملتِ اسلامیہ کاتصوراور اردو شاعری ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/38 <p>Islam is a universal religion. It is a source of guidance for the entire humanity. Its followers are present all over the world and are connected to the rope of “Millat”,&nbsp; even when living in different geographical regions and countries. The Islamic concept of nationality and nation completely different from the western concept.&nbsp; In Islam this concept is based on religion as opposed to geography, color, race, etc, the concept of nation is especially prominent in the poetry of Muslims. Along with Arabic, Persian and all regional languages, Urdu also has a rich tradition of national poetry. This article highlights the tradition of “Milli” poetry found in Urdu. Also the difference between “national poetry” and “Milli poetry” has been made clear.</p> Dr. Mutahhir Shah Ijaz ur Rahman, Dr. Muhammad Rahman Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 323 332 برطانیہ کی اردو شاعری میں تصوف و عرفان کی روایت کا ایک جائزہ https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/39 <p>The tradition of Ṣūfism and Mysticism is deep rooted in our history, culture and civilization. Its essence can be vividly seen in the religious canon of the world. In Islamic history, it is traced back to our Holy Prophet Ḥaḍrat Muḥammad (PBUH), Ḥaḍrat ‘Ali (RA) and numerous Ṣūfῑs. The details may be seen in Ibn ‘Arabῑ’s The Bezels of Wisdom, English translation by Ralph Austin. Urdu poetry has been affected by the tradition of Ṣūfism and Mysticism right from its beginning. One can see poetic expression of mystic experiences in the poetry of Amῑr Khisro, Wali Dakkᾱni, Sirᾱj Auran Ᾱbᾱdi, Mῑr Taqi Mῑr, Khᾱwja Mῑr Dard, Mirzᾱ Rafi Sauda, Mirzᾱ Ghᾱlib, Momin Khᾱn Momin&nbsp; and in modern days Dr. ‘Allᾱma Muḥammad Iqbᾱl. Apart from India and Pakistan, British is the third largest centre of Urdu language and literature. Million of emigrants have been settled over there for centuries. The tradition of Urdu poetry has been very dynamic and vibrant. From earlier poets such as Nawᾱb Karῑm Khᾱn, one can see poetic tradition of Urdu in British emancipated through Iqbᾱl, Faiḍ and NM Rᾱshid etc. In this article, the tradition of Ṣūfism and Mysticism in the Urdu Poetry of England has been discussed and analyzed.</p> Dr. Shir Ali Dr. Saiera Batool Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 333 338 Social Identities of Diverse Personae in the Qurᾱnic Story of Joseph A Sociolinguistic Study https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/40 <p>Qurᾱn, true to its denotation, has always been the most read book in the world, though Islam, which is founded on this book, is the youngest of all religions. For unfolding fresh meanings to the present day readership of this holy book, the Qurᾱnic scholarship has yet to benefit from the modern linguistic theories whose application can richly complement the illocutionary and perlocutionary force of its verses. The interpersonal function of language, as Hallidian paradigm defines it, clearly suggests an intimate relationship between social and linguistic identity. Considering this function of language, the researchers conducted this descriptive study which shows that in the Qurᾱnic story of Joseph, social identities of diverse personae are reflected in their linguistic resources. This study fills the gap in the linguistic studies as the sociolinguistic approach to the Qurᾱnic text had not been pursued seriously. In the Qurᾱnic narratives, diverse personae project their individual as well as social identities with their linguistic identity as the linguistic resources which these personae employ vary according to their social role and situation.&nbsp; The research was guided by the objective of describing the social identity of diverse personae who reveal their personalities through the choice of particular lexical items and preference of their representative order. The study aimed at answering the question as to how different personae in the story of Joseph, related in the twelfth Sūrah of the Qurᾱn named <em>Joseph (Y</em><em>ūsuf),</em> reveal their multifaceted social identities in their peculiar linguistic choices. The analysis of conversations of different personae indicated that their utterances signaled linguistically the socially variegated persons. For this study, the researchers intention is to raise awareness among the Qurᾱnic and linguistic researchers about an important area of research for the Qurᾱnic scholarship and to open up new vistas of meanings yet unexplored and undiscovered.</p> Aẓhar Ḥabῑb Dr Teḥseen Zahra Riᾱz Aḥmad Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 01 14 A Three-Tier Model for Inter textuality in the Holy Qurᾱn https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/41 <p>In previous literature, inter textuality has been applied to the interpretation of the Holy Qurᾱn, but it lacks a coherent and systematic approach. So far, little or no attempt has been made to propose or design a systematic model of inter textuality for the interpretation of the Holy Qurᾱn. This paper reviews both the modern Western and Islamic theoretical literature on inter textuality. Besides, it exhaustively reviews the inter textual approaches to the interpretation of the Holy Qurᾱn both in classical exegetical tradition and in modern research studies. The findings reveal that the existing approaches are either sketchy and sporadic, or generic or rigid, and cannot account for a comprehensive interpretation of the Holy Qurᾱn. They do not suggest any systematic model for search and selection of inter textual links in the Holy Qurᾱn. The review also shows that the modern theoretical literature on inter textuality in Western tradition misses the theoretical literature on the tool of inter textuality in Islamic discourse. On the basis of its findings, this paper, keeping in view the sensitivity of the religious discourse, suggests a 3-tier model of inter textuality for interpretation of the Holy Qurᾱn, consisting of lexical, topical and grammatical/ stylistic inter textual links. This paper also suggests that future research may focus on its application to Qurᾱnic interpretation or/and to frame more vibrant models of inter textuality, drawing on the modern trends in linguistics, to serve the aim of comprehensive interpretation of the Holy Qurᾱn.</p> Dr. Khᾱn Sardarᾱz Dr. Roslᾱn Bin ‘Alῑ Dr. Ᾱsia Nuṣrat Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 15 36 Role of Religion in the life of Academic Leadership A Remedy to Stress https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/42 <p>The present descriptive study aimed to investigate the influence of religion on academic leaders’stress and their coping. Population of the study was consisted of heads, directors and deans of recognized universities located in Lahore, Punjab (Pakistan). The data was collected through purposively sample of 167 academic leaders. Religious Commitment Inventory-10 (RCI-10) and the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory (COPE) were used as research instruments. However, the responses were received from 120 out of 167 academic leaders from various universities located in Lahore. The respondents were consisted of both genders where 67 were male and 53 were female. The two more cohorts, based on their age and satisfaction level, were purposively formed. The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to measure the differences based on gender, age and satisfaction level. The findings suggest that religion was appeared a significant coping strategy to reduce stress for all academic leaders among others. Further, it was revealed that female academic leaders were more inclined towards their religion than male academic leaders. Intrapersonal religious commitment and interpersonal religious commitment of junior and satisfied academic leaders were found to be higher than senior and dissatisfied ones. It was suggested that future studies should be focused on other variables to investigate the role of religion in the lives of academic leaders like ethnicity, social and economic status, family backgrounds and family.</p> Dr. Fakhra ‘Azῑz Dr. Aroona Hᾱshmi Dr Ṭᾱhira Kalsūm Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 37 44 Developing a Model of Educational Leadership A Critique of Islamic and Western Perspectives https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/43 <p>Leadership plays a central role in an organization in terms of family, tribe and society at large scale. The practice of leadership has made the continuation and survival of human being possible on this planet. The presence of leadership is essential in all sectors of life. In the present age, education is the most important element in nations’ development. The effective role of leadership in education sector is the central theme for researchers as can be seen in recent studies. However, limited researches have been found on studies of educational leadership in Islamic perspective. This study was conducted to develop a model for educational leadership of universities and Madᾱris from the perspective of Western and Islamic concept of leadership in education. The objectives were to investigate the perception and comparison of leadership in Madᾱris and universities as both institutions are representing two different worldviews. The teaching faculty was selected for population of this study. The design for this study was concurrent triangulation. The data were collected through questionnaire and interview protocols. The results suggest that institutional vision, organizational goals, centralized approach, development, accountability, professional training, and spiritual approach to seek the pleasure of God variables were found for effective Educational Leadership. However, a model of Educational Leadership is developed which can be used for the improvement of leadership role in Madᾱris and Universities.</p> Dr. Saif Ul Islᾱm Dr. Sajjᾱd Ḥussain Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 45 62 Womanism, Feminism and Islamic Tradition A Comparative Study of Theoretical Perspective https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/44 <p>This world is the abode of human beings, to live in this world human has certain natural, universal and manmade rules which make this world the epitome of living. Theories have been introduced and ideas are developed about women rights according to their values and interests. Societies have been made and developed through cultural differences under the law of nature which is universal in itself. These theories are weighted down with significances and suggestions, and entangled in limited areas, global and political struggles. “Feminism” and “womanism” both stay alive the whole time but they did not extend in European countries and the United States of America in anticipation of the mid 1800s. Up to the time, women looked upon as inferior and have given fewer importances than male sex. In spite of great hostility, it grew and gained power through different movements for the period of the 1800’s and 1900’s and secure many rights for women. The historical view point provides a practical but recurrently neglected facet allowing for existing debate of feminism, as well as believe in, how women definite occurrence of subservience enlighten the mental picture of libration. However, this article aimed to study comprehensively, according to the cultural, social, religion and historical, the forming ways and goals, of the women rights in worldwide and in Islamic Tradition, the greatest global phenomenon that the world is facing. Unconventional approaches are put forward to the study of women activism, while comprise of the examination of the personal, sociopolitical routs of Islamic feminism, in the reliable and specific contexts in order to secure justice for women and their lost credibility and legitimacy.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Muḥammad Bilᾱl Wᾱjid Riᾱz Dr. Anṣᾱr Maḥmūd Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 63 78 An Analysis of Precautions in Armed Conflicts Under Islamic Humanitarian Law https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/45 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 115%; background: white;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 115%; color: black;">The principles of international humanitarian law are recognized by modern international community and the member is stressed to follow it strictly. The principles of international humanitarian law give certain protections and immunities to certain class of people at the time of war. It helps to minimize the damages to human beings, also, to protect human dignity at the time of war. Moreover, principles of international humanitarian law were recognized by the Holy Prophet (SAW) in 7<sup>th</sup> century and were practically applied by him (SAW). This article is aimed to clarify the principles of precautions in international humanitarian law recognized by Islam. The researcher studied and cited the literature on principles of international humanitarian law and Islam. The findings suggest that the Modern humanitarian law was completely present in Islam. The rules of Islamic Humanitarian law are complex in nature and have covered almost all sorts and aspects of hostilities. The Islamic humanitarian laws are not converted in codified form, due to this, and no uniformity is found in the law—in the present day’s practices.</span></p> Azῑz Aḥmad Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 79 88 The Judicial Divorce, Grounds and Impacts A Study from Islamic and Contemporary Legal Perspective https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/46 <p>According to Islam, the term Nikᾱḥ refers to definite words and conditions which make both male and female legitimate for each other. It is a deed of trust and a lifetime bond. The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) has termed Nikᾱḥ as “sacred Sunnah (clear path, normative)”. Nikᾱḥ helps in achieving rationale of human life. It is a permissible and natural process of reproduction. Nevertheless, Nikᾱḥ is more than a social contract which ensures the mutual rights and brings the two unknown families closed to each other. It is also a form of worship, a unit of a righteous society and an integral part of social system. But sometimes the family life situations extend to a level which demands the practice of divorce. This research paper is inductive and analytical in nature which deals with the judicial divorce. Firstly, the difference between a simple divorce and judicial divorce or the dissolution of marriage has been stated qualitatively. Secondly, the various grounds of judicial divorce have been investigated and discussed. Furthermore, the evidences from both the Islamic and existing laws are incorporated comparatively. The verses from the Holy Qurᾱn have been cited with Qurᾱnic Text.</p> Dr. Muḥammad Zubair Dr. Muḥammad Na‘ῑm Dr. Karim Dad Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 89 99 Marriage (Nikᾱḥ) in Islam A Critical Appraisal https://ojs.tahdhibalafkar.com/index.php/taa/article/view/47 <p>In pre-Islamic era, women were victim of gender discrimination and inequalities. The phenomenon of superiority and inferiority was practiced in the society where women were considered inferior to men. The era of Islam introduced the place and status of woman and, also, declared that woman should be treated with honour in societies of Muslim communities. However, the true spirit of Islam has to be implemented for the welfare of humanity and religiosity. The free consent of a woman before giving her hand in marriage (Nikᾱḥ) has to be attained but more often this right is being violated. The status of a marriage, without a Wali’s consent, of a girl who has attained her puberty is still questionable. Another menace relating to marriage is dowry, which has become a source of contention between the two partners. However, this research article is critical discussion and thorough analyses of case laws to dig out the root causes and suggest solutions which could help two parties of marriage.</p> Muḥammad Aqῑl Khᾱn Muḥammad Zubair Hidᾱyat- ur- Reḥmᾱn Copyright (c) 2020 Tahdhib-al-Afkar 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 101 108