إقطاعی نظام سے جاگیردارانہ نظام تک کا تدریجی عمل
A gradual transformation from Iqta system to feudalism
The term “Iqta” is exclusively an Islamic concept of distributing land. During the era of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the land has been distributed as Iqta for the purpose of rehabilitation and to win the hearts of the various tribes of that times. The very first implementation was executed when a Jewish tribe was exiled, and its land was distributed to the immigrants and some poorindividuals. In addition, the conquered land was also distributed to the deserving ones.The first caliph, Hazrat Abu Bakar also followed the same trend as adopted by the prophet. In contrast, the second caliph Hazrat Omer discouraged the idea of feudalism and the sale and purchase of the land were banned. He believed that the captured and other such lands should be the property of the state rather than individuals. In the times of the third caliph, Hazrat Usman eased the policy due to certain reasons and paved the way for feudalism. This led to the emergence and establishment of the feudal system all over the Islamic States. The likely reason was the conquerors were influenced by the traditions and civilizations. Later, the Islamic State expanded to Egypt, Syria, Iran and Rome where the Kingdom Rule was in-placedwith the built-in feudalism.